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Linux, GPRS Phones, Serial Cable, Irda, Bluetooth and USB

on December 8, 2007

Linux, GPRS Phones, Serial Cable, Irda, Bluetooth and USB

Riaz


Table of Contents
1. Requirements
1.1. Settings for the GPRS service
1.2. Computer
1.3. Linux
1.4. GPRS phones
2. Install
2.1. General stuff
2.2. Serial cable
2.2.1. Use with serial cable
2.3. IrDA
2.3.1. Setup IrDA on the Linux machine
2.3.2. IrDA setup for buggy SonyEricsson t68i, T300 etc. phones and buggy Linux kernel
2.3.3. GPRS settings with IrDA
2.4. Bluetooth
2.4.1. Setup Bluetooth on the Linux machine
2.4.2. GPRS settings with Bluetooth
2.4.3. Use with Bluetooth
2.5. USB
2.5.1. USB device configuration for Siemens C55
2.5.2. USB device configuration for Orange SPV
2.5.3. GPRS setup for USB
3. Help

Revision History
Revision 0.0.15.1 100106 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
Added \d’s to disconnect script and some other small changes.
Revision 0.0.15 090704 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
gprs-disconnect-chat script got some more \K’s and +++ATH’s since t610 did not hangup with just one pair of them.
Revision 0.0.14 070404 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
Yearly update 😉 Many, many thanks for all the comments I’ve received during the past year.
Revision 0.0.13 080503 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
Updates to ‘phones reported to work’ list: Ericsson r600 stuff was missing after the Docbook update, oops. According to Kaj Barck Siemens C55 works with USB cable, great.
Revision 0.0.12 100403 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
Added USB section since got Orange SPV working. Hi, Microsoft! Nokia 7650 Bluetooth automation for file transfer needs some more work but some info is there.
Revision 0.0.11 180303 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
Added rfcomm setup automation.
Revision 0.0.10 010303 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
Changed document source to Docbook XML V4.2, huh; I seem to like PSGML mode in GNU Emacs and RedHat 8.0 Docbook utils.
Revision 0.0.9 191102 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
Added ATH to connect script due to t65 problems, thanks to Anders Ingeborn
Revision 0.0.8 081102 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
got Ericsson T39m working with Bluetooth
Revision 0.0.7 051102 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
got Nokia 7650 working with Bluetooth
Revision 0.0.6 301002 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
added Nokia 30, Bluetooth and more pppd options
Revision 0.0.5 300102 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
added Nokia 8310 stuff
Revision 0.0.4 290102 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
added IrDA support, oh so trivial
Revision 0.0.3 280102 Revised by: Mikko Rapeli
rewrote instructions to include the 2.4.x kernel options, big hand for Jukka Taimisto and Jaakko Rautiainen for their help and debugging work

This article explains how to use GSM GPRS phones and RS-232 serial cable, USB, IrDA and Bluetooth for Internet access in Linux. The provided GPRS configuration scripts are for a Finnish operator Radiolinja, but can be changed to suite any other operators settings. This document does not cover all the Linux and RS-232, USB, IrDA, Bluetooth, TCP/IP or Internet connectivity and trouble shooting details, since those are covered by other fine documents, howto’s and even source code comments elsewhere.


1. Requirements

1.1. Settings for the GPRS service

To setup the GPRS connection from a computer, some GPRS network/operator/service specific settings are needed. Get these from your operator or try a web source like this one http://www.taniwha.org.uk/gprs.html:

Access Point Name (APN) – my operator uses “internet”
Username and password for the APN, if any – my operator uses username “rlnet” and password “internet”
Packet Data Protocol (PDP) name – most operators use the Internet Protocol (IP)
Quality of Service (QoS) parameters if any – some services may use these to provide packet traffic priorisation
Domain Name Service (DNS) IP addresses – my operators servers are 213.161.033.200 and 212.226.226.001 (these resolve human readable names like http://www.iki.fi to Internet routable packet addresses like 212.16.100.1)

1.2. Computer

I have used these computers when playing with GPRS:

IBM ThinkPad T20, serial port, IrDA and Bluetooth with the Racewood dongle
Fujitsu-Siemens Lifebook, serial port and IrDA
AMD Athlon 1GHz, KT133 serial and USB ports, Racewood BTD-2403 Bluetooth USB Dongle
HP OmniBook 4150 (SIR IrDA enabled from BIOS)

1.3. Linux

I have used these Linux setups when playing with GPRS:

Debian woody, sarge, etch and sid with 2.4 and 2.6 kernels
RedHat 9
RedHat 8.0 with standard kernel 2.4.18-27.8.0
RedHat 7.3: kernel vanilla 2.4.19 (perhaps required by Bluez Bluetooth), pppd-2.4.1-2, chat 1.22, bluez-libs-2.2, bluez-utils-2.1, bluez-sdp-0.8, bluez-pan-1.0, bluez-kernel-2.3, bluez-hciemu-1.0, bluez-hcidump-1.3, bluez-bluefw-0.7
RedHat 7.1: kernel 2.4.2-2, pppd version 2.4.0, chat version 1.22, irda-utils-0.9.13-7

To install pppd, chat, vwdial, USB, IrDA and Bluez Bluetooth stuff consult their man pages, relevant howto’s and search forums, mailing lists and the Internet for solutions. These sites may be of use: irda.sourceforge.net, bluez.sourceforge.net, www.linux-usb.org. For more detailed information about GPRS take a look at the turtiainen.dna.fi/GPRS-HOWTO.


1.4. GPRS phones

The following phones I’ve managed to get working with Linux:

SonyEricsson K500i, IrDA, serial cable
SonyEricsson T610, IrDA, Bluetooth
SonyEricsson t68i, serial cable, IrDA, Bluetooth
Orange SPV (Microsoft Smartphone), USB
Nokia 6630, Bluetooth, USB(ACM)
Nokia 7610, Bluetooth
Nokia 30, serial cable
Nokia 7650, IrDA, Bluetooth
Nokia 8310, IrDA
Ericsson t39, serial cable, IrDA, Bluetooth
Ericsson t68, serial cable, IrDA
Ericsson r520, serial cable, IrDA

These have been reported to work too:

Nokia 6680
Motorola c650
SonyEricsson K700i (only responded to ‘AT+CGDCONT=1,”IP”,”internet.vodafone.net”‘ without the empty string and zeros)
SonyEricsson T616
Nokia 6650
Siemens MC60
Siemens MC35
Siemens MC35i (can be powercycled with ‘AT+CFUN=1,1’, see modem manual for more details)
Nokia 6610
NEC DB7000, with an ATEN serial to USB converter
Telit GM862, serial cable (with “nopcomp” PPP option)
Siemens S55, serial cable, Bluetooth, IrDA (required crtscts)
Siemens M50
Ericsson r600 works with scripts by Heikki Lindholm
Nokia 6310i
Nokia 6310e with USB-to-RS232 converter (PL2303 chip) and serial cable
Siemens C55 with USB cable (Kaj Barck: kernels 2.4.18 and 2.4.20 with usbserial and Prolific 2303 Single Port Serial Driver support, create device files according to kernel documentation and use GPRS scripts with /dev/ttyUSB0 serial port)
Siemens s45
Siemens ME45, serial cable, IrDA

2. Install

2.1. General stuff

If you are running a 2.4.x kernel, add the following line to /etc/modules.conf or equivalent:

options ppp_async flag_time=0

This option in /etc/modules.conf tells the ppp_async module to run with flag_time=0. It has something to do with serial port specifications and incompatible phones, but this option seems to be needed. The ppp_async kernel module defines this option in drivers/net/ppp_async.c with a comment: “interval between flagged packets (in clock ticks)”. So there’s the definition. This option may not be needed, if the serial connection is only emulated, like it is with IrDA and Bluetooth. Download the GPRS configuration and help files for you’re own comfort, since configuring an Internet access is often done off line:

linux_gprs.xml – document root
linux_gprs.html – the same document in html
gprs – pppd configuration file
gprs-connect-chat – connect AT command script
gprs-disconnect-chat – disconnect AT command script
gprs-wvdial.conf – wvdial configuration used with USB

As root, copy the gprs* files to /etc/ppp/peers/ and make shure that they are owned by root and the chat scripts are executable:

# cp gprs* /etc/ppp/peers/ # chown root:root /etc/ppp/peers/gprs* # chmod u+rwx,g=rx,o=rx /etc/ppp/peers/gprs-connect-chat # chmod u+rwx,g=rx,o=rx /etc/ppp/peers/gprs-disconnect-chat

Take a quick look at these file just to see what they’re made of. Next you need to configure the name servers. If your phones ppp stack can give the DNS server addresses and if your /etc/ppp/ip-up or /etc/ppp/ip-up.local script can handle nameserver configuration from pppd, set the /etc/ppp/peers/gprs options to this:

... # DNS servers from the phone: # some phones support this, some don't. usepeerdns ...

With this option the GPRS network given name servers are saved to /etc/ppp/resolv.conf and the ip-up scripts could for example copy this file to /etc/resolv.conf. If the phone does not support the usepeerdns option, add DNS servers to your /etc/resolv.conf. For example Radiolinja’s name servers are:

nameserver 213.161.033.200 nameserver 212.226.226.001

Also check, that you have order hosts,bind line in your /etc/host.conf. Set the Access Point Name (APN) and QoS parameters in the gprs-connect-chat according to your GPRS operators settings. The Nokia 8310 and 30 and some other phones may not support the GPRS QoS parameter AT commands, so the following lines must be removed from the gprs-connect-chat file:

OK              AT+CGQREQ=1,0,0,0,0,0           \ OK              AT+CGQMIN=1,0,0,0,0,0           \

On some phones, like Ericsson and SonyEricsson models, the AT command used to set the APN name and other options in the gprs-connect-chat actualy changes the settings in the phone. In this case you may wan’t to remove the QoS line and this APN line from the gprs-connect-chat script:

OK              'AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet","",0,0'   \

On some other phones, like the Siemens models, this command acts like a normal modem init command and none of the GPRS settings in the phone are touched. See the GPRS-HOWTO for more details on these AT commands. If the GPRS provider requires PAP or CHAP authentication to access the service, add the correct username to /etc/ppp/peers/gprs after ‘user’ parameter and username and password to the /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and /etc/ppp/chap-secrets respectively. If usernames and passwords are not required, the ‘user’ parameter can be removed or commented out.


2.2. Serial cable

Edit (mainly comment and uncomment) the /etc/ppp/peers/gprs file for serial cable. Here is a stripped example configuration:

... #/dev/ttyS0     # serial port one /dev/ttyS1      # serial port two #/dev/ircomm0   # IrDA serial port one #/dev/ttyUB0    # Bluetooth serial port one ... 115200  # fast enough #57600  # perhaps usefull with IrDA ... crtscts  # serial cable and Bluetooth #nocrtscts # IrDA ...

2.2.1. Use with serial cable

Connect your phone with RS-232 serial cable to the serial port one (Linux /dev/ttyS0, Windows COM1). Start pppd with the GPRS scripts as root:

	# pppd call gprs

The pppd stays on the shell screen, so you can terminate the connection at any time by pressing CTRL-C. Now, you should see the AT commands and pppd debug output on your terminal. If all goes well, your ifconfig on another terminal shows the GPRS connection as ppp0 and route -n shows the ppp0 IP address as the default gateway. Here’s an example log with Nokia 30, serial cable and Radiolinja:

# pppd call gprs Press CTRL-C to close the connection at any stage! defining PDP context... ~AT OK ATE1 OK AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet","",0,0 OK waiting for connect...  ATD*99***1# CONNECT Connected. If the following ppp negotiations fail, try restarting the phone.  Serial connection established. using channel 10 Using interface ppp0 Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/ttyS1 sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x1 <asyncmap 0x0> <magic 0x23e95889>] rcvd [LCP ConfRej id=0x1 <magic 0x23e95889>] sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x2 <asyncmap 0x0>] rcvd [LCP ConfAck id=0x2 <asyncmap 0x0>] rcvd [LCP ConfReq id=0x0 <auth pap> <mru 1500> <asyncmap 0xa0000>] sent [LCP ConfAck id=0x0 <auth pap> <mru 1500> <asyncmap 0xa0000>] sent [PAP AuthReq id=0x1 user="rlnet" password="internet"] sent [PAP AuthReq id=0x2 user="rlnet" password="internet"] rcvd [PAP AuthAck id=0x2 ""] sent [IPCP ConfReq id=0x1 <addr 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns1 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns3  0.0.0.0>] sent [CCP ConfReq id=0x1 <deflate 15> <deflate(old#) 15>] rcvd [IPCP ConfReq id=0x0 <addr 10.6.6.6>] sent [IPCP ConfNak id=0x0 <addr 10.0.0.1>] rcvd [LCP ProtRej id=0x0 80 fd 01 01 00 0c 1a 04 78 00 18 04 78 00] rcvd [IPCP ConfNak id=0x1 <addr 10.68.0.64> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200>  <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] sent [IPCP ConfReq id=0x2 <addr 10.68.0.64> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200>  <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] rcvd [IPCP ConfReq id=0x1 <addr 10.0.0.1>] sent [IPCP ConfAck id=0x1 <addr 10.0.0.1>] rcvd [IPCP ConfAck id=0x2 <addr 10.68.0.64> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200>  <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] local  IP address 10.68.0.64 remote IP address 10.0.0.1 primary   DNS address 213.161.33.200 secondary DNS address 212.226.226.1 Script /etc/ppp/ip-up started (pid 2473) Script /etc/ppp/ip-up finished (pid 2473), status = 0x0

You can also ping some Internet host to see if the connection is really set up properly, but some networks and hosts may not reply to ICMP echo requests because of security issues. At the time of writing at least http://www.ericsson.com ping’s back through the Radiolinja network:

# ping www.ericsson.com PING a1762.g.akamai.net (195.197.54.135) from 10.68.0.64 : 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from a195-197-54-135.deploy.akamaitechnologies.net  (195.197.54.135): icmp_seq=0 ttl=250 time=639.090 msec  --- a1762.g.akamai.net ping statistics --- 10 packets transmitted, 2 packets received, 80% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/mdev = 639.090/814.522/989.955/175.434 ms
Note Testing the network connecion may be a bit difficult, since some GPRS networks may only allow WWW access (TCP port 80) to the Internet, and even those connections may be behind a hidden WWW-proxy. Therefore, testing should be carried out with ping to see if just might work, traceroute -I to see where the packets get dropped and with a browser like lynx or links to see if you’re behind a nasty proxy.If all of these fail, then perhaps the problem is in the name server configuration (try to resolve some name like host http://www.ericsson.com) or routing tables (what is the default route, see with route -n) or finally even in the GPRS phone or scripts (check the phone display for GPRS signs, reboot the phone, even take the battery out, double check the scripts and settings and see the system logs at /var/log/messages). A personal computer attached to a cellular phone connected to a large network can be a very unstable system as a whole, from an Internet users perspective.

2.3. IrDA

2.3.1. Setup IrDA on the Linux machine

This part can be tricky, so see the relevant howto’s and web pages. If all is setup up correctly /etc/rc.d/init.d/irda start would set irda up. With RedHat 7.1 on an HP OmniBook 4150 I got the IrDA port working manually like this:

  • enable SIR (Serial IR) IrDA from bios, defaults to 0x2F8h and IRQ 3
  • add following lines to /etc/modules.conf: alias char-major-161 ircomm-tty, alias tty-ldisk-11 irtty
  • the kernel modules exist for the standard RedHat kernel so no compiling is needed, and also the /dev/ir* device files exist
  • load the needed modules with insmod:
    # insmod irda # insmod irtty # insmod ircomm
  • do the IrDA attachment to the new ttyS1 device (see dmesg before and after the IrDA bios enabling to get the correct serial device number)
    # irattach /dev/ttyS1 -s 1
  • see from /var/log/messages that IrDA is ok
  • enable the phones IrDA and check if you can see it with irdadump
  • test the IrDA serial connection and AT commands with minicom, remember to set HW flow control off in settings:
    # minicom /dev/ircomm0

Now it should work. If not, RTFM and search the net.


2.3.2. IrDA setup for buggy SonyEricsson t68i, T300 etc. phones and buggy Linux kernel

While upgrading the Linux kernel from 2.4.18 to 2.4.20 (actually the corresponding RedHat versions), I suddenly got a non-working IrDA setup. The reasons behind this were two bugs in the SonyEricsson t68i and one little and quickly fixed bug in the Linux kernel IrDA stack. The Linux IrDA maintainer Jean Tourrilhes had a fix for these ready on his web site (search for “ericsson phones”), but I’m writing the short instructions here too:

  • Use the latest kernel version possible, at least 2.4.22. If your distribution has an older base line, then compile your own from the latest vanilla tree.
  • From the command line, the Linux IrDA stack can be adjusted for the buggy Ericsson’s with these commands:
    # echo 1000 > /proc/sys/net/irda/min_tx_turn_time # echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/irda/max_tx_window
  • Use sysctl to automate these parameters, man sysctl and man sysctl.conf will help.

The odd part with these bugs was that the IrDA connection worked (when worker, it was rather unstable) with very strange serial port settings: the parity check bit had to be set to Even instead of the usual None (8E1 instead of the usual 8N1).


2.3.3. GPRS settings with IrDA

Edit (mainly comment and uncomment) the /etc/ppp/peers/gprs file for IrDA. Here’s a stripped example configuration:

... #/dev/ttyS0     # serial port one #/dev/ttyS1     # serial port two /dev/ircomm0    # IrDA serial port one #/dev/ttyUB0    # Bluetooth serial port one ... #115200		# fast enough 57600		# perhaps usefull with IrDA ... #crtscts  # serial cable and Bluetooth nocrtscts # IrDA ...

2.3.3.1. Use with IrDA

First setup the IrDA connection to the phone as explained previously. Then do the same stuff as with serial cable. An irdadump terminal can be usefull to see that the IrDA connection is ok.


2.4. Bluetooth

2.4.1. Setup Bluetooth on the Linux machine

This part is tricky, but here’s how I did it. I started of with RedHat Linux 7.3 with upgrades like the 2.4.18-10 kernel, but after enough trials and errors I went to the vanilla 2.4.19 kernel. My latest setups use Debian testing/unstable with the 2.6 kernel series. There are many Bluetooth stacks availabel for Linux, but I desided to try Bluez, which is default Bluetooth stack in 2.6 kernel series. The Bluetooth device I use is a Racewood Bluetooth USB dongle.


2.4.1.1. Kernel config

Since I wanted to use Bluez stack, I should not have compiled the kernel with CONFIG_USB_BLUETOOTH=m, since this option is for the Axis Bluetooth stack. After multiple rmmod/modprobes and help from the bluez-users mailing list, I removed the bluetooth.o from /lib/modules/kernel-2.4.19/kernel/drivers/usb. All my Bluetooth related kernel options are set like this:

# grep -i blue /usr/src/linux-2.4.19/.config CONFIG_USB_BLUETOOTH=m # Don't use this option with Bluez Bluetooth! # Bluetooth support CONFIG_BLUEZ=m CONFIG_BLUEZ_L2CAP=m CONFIG_BLUEZ_SCO=m # Bluetooth device drivers CONFIG_BLUEZ_HCIUSB=m # CONFIG_BLUEZ_USB_FW_LOAD is not set # CONFIG_BLUEZ_USB_ZERO_PACKET is not set # CONFIG_BLUEZ_HCIUART is not set # CONFIG_BLUEZ_HCIDTL1 is not set # CONFIG_BLUEZ_HCIVHCI is not set

Then I build, installed and booted the kernel as usual. Remeber to set the /usr/src/linux and /usr/src/linux-2.4 symbolic links to the current kernel sources, to /usr/src/linux-2.4.19 in my case.


2.4.1.2. Bluez modules, programs and some testing

Next I downloaded the Bluez sources from bluez.sourceforge.net I did a ./configure && make && make install for all of these:

bluez-kernel-2.3.tar.gz create_dev script was not in this archive, but in Bluez CVS, see the README file bluez-libs-2.2.tar.gz bluez-utils-2.1.tar.gz bluez-sdp-0.8.tar.gz bluez-pan-1.1-pre1.tar.gz bluez-hcidump-1.3.tar.gz bluez-hciemu-1.0.tar.gz bluez-bluefw-0.7.tar.gz

And now I have the hciconfig, hcitool and rfcomm programs and all the needed Bluez kernel modules installed. Take a look at the README‘s for each of the Bluez modules, since you may also need to create the device files (the create_dev script in bluez-kernel) and add the this kind of lines to /etc/modules.conf:

# For Bluez Bluetooth stack alias net-pf-31 bluez alias bt-proto-0 l2cap alias bt-proto-2 sco alias bt-proto-3 rfcomm alias bt-proto-4 bnep  # for Bluetooth UARTs alias tty-ldisc-15 hci_uart

Then do a depmod -a and plug in the Bluetooth dongle. At least mine lights a green led to tell [I’ve got power!]. Then I did a /etc/rc.d/init.d/bluetooth start and /var/log/messages shows these messages:

Nov  5 22:34:13 ransu hcid[5600]: HCI daemon ver 2.1 started Nov  5 22:34:14 ransu bluetooth: hcid startup succeeded Nov  5 22:34:14 ransu kernel: BlueZ Core ver 2.2 Copyright (C) 2000,2001 Qualcomm Inc Nov  5 22:34:14 ransu kernel: Written 2000,2001 by Maxim Krasnyansky <maxk@qualcomm.com> Nov  5 22:34:14 ransu bluetooth: sdpd startup succeeded Nov  5 22:34:14 ransu kernel: BlueZ L2CAP ver 2.1 Copyright (C) 2000,2001 Qualcomm Inc Nov  5 22:34:14 ransu kernel: Written 2000,2001 by Maxim Krasnyansky <maxk@qualcomm.com> Nov  5 22:34:14 ransu sdpd[5606]: SDPd ver 0.8 started

And with lsmod I can see that the basic Bluez modules have been loaded:

l2cap                  17408   1  (autoclean) bluez                  35048   1  (autoclean) [l2cap] usbcore                76992   1

Then I manually load the USB Bluetooth drivers and try the hciconfig tool:

# modprobe hci_usb # modprobe usb-uhci # hciconfig  hci0:   Type: USB          BD Address: 00:08:1B:00:1B:E7 ACL MTU: 192:8  SCO MTU: 64:8         UP RUNNING PSCAN ISCAN          RX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 events:0 errors:0         TX bytes:0 acl:0 sco:0 commands:0 errors:0

Note For some reason the USB dongle does not work right after loading modules the hciconfig outputs a 00:00:00:00:00:00 address to the card. The dongle did wake up after I did a hciconfig hci0 down && hciconfig hci0 up.

Now the device should be up and running and /var/log/messages and dmesg also show a great deal of info about the USB Bluetooth device. With hcitool I can now see my phone, which has Bluetooth on, and I can even l2ping it:

# hcitool inq Inquiring ...         00:02:EE:69:E7:BD       clock offset: 0x13e4    class: 0x502204 # l2ping 00:02:EE:69:E7:BD Ping: 00:02:EE:69:E7:BD from 00:08:1B:00:1B:E7 (data size 20) ... 0 bytes from 00:02:EE:69:E7:BD id 200 time 26.47ms 0 bytes from 00:02:EE:69:E7:BD id 201 time 40.73ms 0 bytes from 00:02:EE:69:E7:BD id 202 time 30.54ms 0 bytes from 00:02:EE:69:E7:BD id 203 time 38.35ms 4 sent, 4 received, 0% loss

sdptool (Service Discovery Protocol tool) can be used to find a GPRS modem offering Bluetooth Dial-Up Networking profile. The Bluetooth channel number is important for configuring the rfcomm Bluetooth serial port connection.

# sdptool search DUN Inquiring ... Searching for DUN on 00:0E:ED:0F:D2:DD ... Service Name: Dial-Up Networking Service RecHandle: 0x10005 Service Class ID List:   "Dialup Networking" (0x1103) Protocol Descriptor List:   "L2CAP" (0x0100)   "RFCOMM" (0x0003)     Channel: 2 Language Base Attr List:   code_ISO639: 0x454e   encoding:    0x6a   base_offset: 0x100 Profile Descriptor List:   "Dialup Networking" (0x1103)     Version: 0x0100

2.4.1.3. Bluez configuration

Bluez installs the config files to /etc/bluetooth:

# ls -l /etc/bluetooth/ total 20 drwxr-xr-x    2 root     root         4096 Oct 30 00:27 firmware -rw-r--r--    1 root     root         1371 Oct 29 19:24 hcid.conf ----------    1 root     root           36 Oct 30 00:43 link_key -rw-------    1 root     root            7 Oct 30 00:07 pin -rw-r--r--    1 root     root          329 Nov  5 17:44 rfcomm.conf

The default settings in hcid.conf were fine for me, but the phones address and DUN channel number need to be added to the rfcomm.conf. This how my rfcomm.conf looks like:

rfcomm0 {         # Automatically bind the device at startup         bind yes;          # Bluetooth address of the device         device 00:02:EE:69:E7:BD;          # RFCOMM channel for the connection         channel 1;          # Description of the connection         comment "Nokia 7650"; }

To automatically connect the to the phone with Bluetooth RFCOMM, put rfcomm bind all command to the end of the start function in /etc/rc.d/init.d/bluetooth and rfcomm release all command to the end of stop function. Here is a snippet of my /etc/rc.d/init.d/bluetooth file:

... start() {         echo -n $"Starting $prog: "         daemon /sbin/hcid          if [ -x /usr/sbin/sdpd ]; then                 daemon /usr/sbin/sdpd         fi          start_uarts         touch /var/lock/subsys/bluetooth         # bind all rfcomm connectins from /etc/bluetooth/rfcomm.conf         rfcomm bind all         echo } stop() {         echo -n $"Shutting down $prog: "         killproc hcid          if [ -x /usr/sbin/sdpd ]; then                 killproc sdpd         fi          stop_uarts         rm -f  /var/lock/subsys/bluetooth         # release all rfcomm connections         rfcomm release all         echo } ...

/etc/bluetooth/pin holds the pin code which you need to type on the phone when the two Bluetooth devices are paired. Change the value to something more unpredictable than 1234. When the Bluetooth subsystem is now restarted with /etc/rc.d/init.d/bluetooth restart, the rfcomm connection should be binded automatically even if no Bluetooth devices are connected to the Linux machine:

# /etc/rc.d/init.d/bluetooth restart Shutting down Bluetooth:                                   [  OK  ] Starting Bluetooth:                                        [  OK  ] # rfcomm rfcomm0: 00:02:EE:69:E7:BD channel 1 clean

To automatically start the Bluetooth at boot time, add a symlink from the corresponding run level directory to the bluetoot startup script:

# ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/bluetooth /etc/rc5.d/K90bluetooth

At this point, when the bluetooth daemons are up and running, it may be wise to pair the phone and the Linux host. With Nokia 7650 it goes something like this: start Bluetooth from the phone, scan for other Bluetooth hosts, select the Linux host, insert the correct pin (the same is in /etc/bluetooth/pin) and set the host as ‘Authorized’. The authorized part means, that the phone does not ask for a pin code anymore. This is insecure but handy when testing the Bluetooth connection.


2.4.1.3.1. Sending and receiving files with Nokia 7650

There are a few good documents in the net on how to use Bluetooth OBEX with mobile devices: http://www.frasunek.com/HOWTO-Nokia7650-Bluetooth.txt and http://www.iterationx.org/essays/2002/10/21/. At the time of writing this in 2003, the above HOWTO’s do not show howto automatically setup the Bluetooth connections with OBEX, so I decided to write it down here. So, to send and receive files with the OBEX protocol, the Linux host needs the OpenOBEX library and OpenOBEX applications from http://openobex.sourceforge.net/ and ussp-push application from http://www.unrooted.net/hacking/bluez-rfcomm-obex.html. Compile and install the OpenOBEX library and applications and the ussp-push tool, #./configure && make should do it.

Note On a resent (2004) Debian unstable/testing setup, the file transfer over Bluetooth is quite easy. Install Bluez and OpenOBEX libraries and the obexserver package. After that man obexserver will show howto receive data from a phone like the Nokia 7650. Other openobex applications like KDE Bluetooth might enable sending data from the computer to the phone too, I haven’t tried those so much yet.

2.4.2. GPRS settings with Bluetooth

Edit (mainly comment and uncomment) the /etc/ppp/peers/gprs file for Bluetooth. Here’s a stripped example configuration:

... #/dev/ttyS0     # serial port one #/dev/ttyS1     # serial port two #/dev/ircomm0   # IrDA serial port one /dev/rfcomm0    # Bluetooth serial port one ... 115200		# fast enough #57600		# perhaps usefull with IrDA ... crtscts  # serial cable and Bluetooth #nocrtscts # IrDA ...

Now you should, fingers crossed, be able start the Bluetooth GPRS connection.


2.4.3. Use with Bluetooth

If the bluetooth daemons are not running yet, start them and try opening the connection:

# /etc/rc.d/init.d/bluetooth start Starting Bluetooth:                                        [  OK  ] # pppd call gprs Press CTRL-C to close the connection at any stage! defining PDP context... rAT OK ATH OK ATE1 OK AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet","",0,0 OK waiting for connect...  ATD*99***1# CONNECT Connected. Connected. If the following ppp negotiations fail, try restarting the phone.  Serial connection established. using channel 4 Using interface ppp0 Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/rfcomm0 rcvd [LCP ConfReq id=0x0 <auth pap> <mru 1500> <asyncmap 0xa0000>] sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x1 <asyncmap 0x0> <magic 0x4df00a4b>] sent [LCP ConfAck id=0x0 <auth pap> <mru 1500> <asyncmap 0xa0000>] rcvd [LCP ConfRej id=0x1 <magic 0x4df00a4b>] sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x2 <asyncmap 0x0>] rcvd [LCP ConfAck id=0x2 <asyncmap 0x0>] sent [PAP AuthReq id=0x1 user="rlnet" password="internet"] rcvd [PAP AuthAck id=0x1 ""] sent [IPCP ConfReq id=0x1 <addr 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns1 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns3 0.0.0.0>] sent [CCP ConfReq id=0x1 <deflate 15> <deflate(old#) 15>] rcvd [IPCP ConfReq id=0x0 <addr 10.6.6.6>] sent [IPCP ConfNak id=0x0 <addr 10.0.0.1>] rcvd [LCP ProtRej id=0x0 80 fd 01 01 00 0c 1a 04 78 00 18 04 78 00] sent [IPCP ConfReq id=0x1 <addr 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns1 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns3 0.0.0.0>] rcvd [IPCP ConfNak id=0x1 <addr 10.64.1.141> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200> <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] sent [IPCP ConfReq id=0x2 <addr 10.64.1.141> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200> <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] rcvd [IPCP ConfReq id=0x1 <addr 10.0.0.1>] sent [IPCP ConfAck id=0x1 <addr 10.0.0.1>] rcvd [IPCP ConfAck id=0x2 <addr 10.64.1.141> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200> <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] local  IP address 10.64.1.141 remote IP address 10.0.0.1 primary   DNS address 213.161.33.200 secondary DNS address 212.226.226.1 Script /etc/ppp/ip-up started (pid 2119) Script /etc/ppp/ip-up finished (pid 2119), status = 0x0

So the pppd scripts seem to work. Verify the connectin with ping:

# ping www.ericsson.com PING a1762.g.akamai.net (195.197.54.137) from 10.68.0.29 : 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from a195-197-54-137.deploy.akamaitechnologies.net  (195.197.54.137): icmp_seq=0 ttl=250 time=832.947 msec 64 bytes from a195-197-54-137.deploy.akamaitechnologies.net  (195.197.54.137): icmp_seq=1 ttl=250 time=627.201 msec  --- a1762.g.akamai.net ping statistics --- 3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss round-trip min/avg/max/mdev = 627.201/798.043/933.983/127.655 ms

Everything is now setup. Just go surfing!


2.5. USB

2.5.1. USB device configuration for Siemens C55

I have not had this C55 in my hands for testing, but Kaj Barck and numerous other people have told me that it works with the USB cable. The only real details here are to use the pl2303 driver with a command like # modprobe pl2303, create device files according to the fine kernel documentation at Documentation/usb/usb-serial.txt and use GPRS scripts with /dev/ttyUSB0 serial port. This description may be distribution, kernel version etc. specific, so Linux USB site may be of help.


2.5.2. USB device configuration for Orange SPV

When I connected an Orange SPV to my RedHat 8.0 Linux box with the USB cable, /var/log/messages shows the manufacturer and device id’s:

Apr 10 20:50:50 ransu kernel: hub.c: USB new device connect on bus2/2, assigned device number 23 Apr 10 20:50:50 ransu kernel: usb.c: USB device 23 (vend/prod 0xbb4/0xce) is not claimed by any active driver. Apr 10 20:50:53 ransu /etc/hotplug/usb.agent: ... no modules for USB product bb4/ce/0

So, the device id’s are visible, but none of the hotplug scripts know which driver could use it. Not a surprise, but the id’s are according to http://www.linux-usb.org/usb.ids identical to the O2’s Xda:

0bb4  High Tech Computer Corp.         00ce  mmO2 XDA GSM/GPRS Pocket PC

After reading about USB serial drivers from Linux kernel document Documentation/usb/usb-serial.txt, I tried usbserial driver with the vendor and product id’s given by the USB logs:

 # modprobe usbserial vendor=0x0bb4 product=0x00ce         

Looking at /var/log/messages, the driver seems to have loaded well:

Apr 10 20:59:03 ransu kernel: usb.c: registered new driver serial Apr 10 20:59:03 ransu kernel: usbserial.c: USB Serial support registered for Generic Apr 10 20:59:03 ransu kernel: usbserial.c: Generic converter detected Apr 10 20:59:03 ransu kernel: usbserial.c: Generic converter now attached to ttyUSB0 (or usb/tts/0 for devfs) Apr 10 20:59:03 ransu kernel: usbserial.c: USB Serial Driver core v1.4

A trial with minicom on the device /dev/ttyUSB0 shows that the connection to the phone actually works, wow!

Note Note that the phones Modem Link must be activated from Programs-Accessories-Modem Link with USB before it answers to AT commands.

2.5.3. GPRS setup for USB

I chose to use wvdial with the SPV because chat didn’t work for me at all. The reason might be my own manual and screwed up upgrade from RedHat 7.3 to 8.0. See the gprs-wvdial.conf for the initialisation commands. The pppd configuration is very similar to the other cases, since only the device file changes to /dev/ttyUSB0 and connect script changes to gprs-wvdial.conf. Here’s a stripped down configuration for Orange SPV as a USB serial device:

... # Connect script: # scripts to initialize the GPRS modem and start the connection, # wvdial command is for Orange SPV while other phones should work with chat #connect /etc/ppp/peers/gprs-connect-chat connect "/usr/bin/wvdial --chat --config /etc/ppp/peers/gprs-wvdial.conf radiolinja_usb_orange_spv" ... # Serial device to which the GPRS phone is connected: # /dev/ttyS0 for serial port (COM1 in Windows), # /dev/ircomm0 for IrDA, # /dev/ttyUB0 for Bluetooth (Bluez with rfcomm running) and # /dev/ttyUSB0 for USB #/dev/ttyS0     # serial port one #/dev/ttyS1     # serial port two #/dev/ircomm0   # IrDA serial port one #/dev/rfcomm0   # Bluetooth serial port one /dev/ttyUSB0    # USB serial device, for example Orange SPV ...

Here is dump of a successfull GPRS connection:

# pppd call gprs --> WvDial: Internet dialer version 1.53 --> Initializing modem. --> Sending: ATH ATH OK --> Sending: ATE1 ATE1 OK --> Sending: AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet","",0,0 AT+CGDCONT=1,"IP","internet","",0,0 OK --> Modem initialized. --> Sending: ATD*99# --> Waiting for carrier. ATD*99# CONNECT --> Carrier detected.  Waiting for prompt. ~[7f]}#@!}!}.} }-}#}%B#}%}'}"}(}"[0f]J~ --> PPP negotiation detected. Serial connection established. using channel 7 Using interface ppp0 Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/ttyUSB0 --> PPP negotiation detected. Serial connection established. using channel 8 Using interface ppp0 Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/ttyUSB0 rcvd [LCP ConfReq id=0x11 <auth chap MD5> <pcomp> <accomp>] sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x1 <asyncmap 0x0> <magic 0x9c88f8d9>] sent [LCP ConfRej id=0x11 <pcomp> <accomp>] rcvd [LCP ConfRej id=0x1 <magic 0x9c88f8d9>] sent [LCP ConfReq id=0x2 <asyncmap 0x0>] rcvd [LCP ConfReq id=0x12 <auth chap MD5>] sent [LCP ConfAck id=0x12 <auth chap MD5>] rcvd [LCP ConfAck id=0x2 <asyncmap 0x0>] rcvd [CHAP Challenge id=0x6 <e87abfa4444519b38d3a0605b385c0af3456549a1326fba697c73b9bc933bdd4ab10edaa380654a120c1b55540c5e923e3f57a97>, name = ""] sent [CHAP Response id=0x6 <ee090487bc5d8833e366b382c1e1323f>, name = "rlnet"] rcvd [CHAP Success id=0x6 ""] sent [IPCP ConfReq id=0x1 <addr 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns1 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns3 0.0.0.0>] sent [CCP ConfReq id=0x1 <deflate 15> <deflate(old#) 15>] rcvd [LCP ProtRej id=0x6 80 fd 01 01 00 0c 1a 04 78 00 18 04 78 00] rcvd [IPCP ConfReq id=0x13] sent [IPCP ConfNak id=0x13 <addr 10.0.0.1>] rcvd [IPCP ConfReq id=0x14 <addr 10.0.0.1>] sent [IPCP ConfAck id=0x14 <addr 10.0.0.1>] rcvd [IPCP ConfReq id=0x15 <addr 10.0.0.1>] sent [IPCP ConfAck id=0x15 <addr 10.0.0.1>] sent [IPCP ConfReq id=0x1 <addr 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns1 0.0.0.0> <ms-dns3 0.0.0.0>] rcvd [IPCP ConfNak id=0x1 <addr 10.68.1.68> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200> <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] sent [IPCP ConfReq id=0x2 <addr 10.68.1.68> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200> <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] rcvd [IPCP ConfAck id=0x2 <addr 10.68.1.68> <ms-dns1 213.161.33.200> <ms-dns3 212.226.226.1>] local  IP address 10.68.1.68 remote IP address 10.0.0.1 primary   DNS address 213.161.33.200 secondary DNS address 212.226.226.1 Script /etc/ppp/ip-up started (pid 3239) Script /etc/ppp/ip-up finished (pid 3239), status = 0x0

And ping verifies that the connection is up and running:

# ping www.ericsson.com PING a1762.g.akamai.net (195.197.54.137) from 10.68.1.68 : 56(84) bytes of data. --- a1762.g.akamai.net ping statistics --- 1 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% loss, time 0ms  [root@ransu peers]# ping www.ericsson.com PING a1762.g.akamai.net (195.197.54.135) from 10.68.1.68 : 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from a195-197-54-135.deploy.akamaitechnologies.net (195.197.54.135): icmp_seq=1 ttl=251 time=844 ms 64 bytes from a195-197-54-135.deploy.akamaitechnologies.net (195.197.54.135): icmp_seq=2 ttl=251 time=890 ms  --- a1762.g.akamai.net ping statistics --- 2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% loss, time 6756ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 844.408/867.503/890.598/23.095 ms # ping www.microsoft.fi PING web01.microsoft.fi (212.209.134.48) from 10.68.1.68 : 56(84) bytes of data. --- web01.microsoft.fi ping statistics --- 22 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% loss, time 21012ms

So, the Orange SPV works via USB. Maybe other GPRS phones with USB support work too. At least adding a new USB device seems to be easy in Linux, if there is a working driver around.


3. Help

For help, take a look at the gprs, gprs-connect-chat and gprs-disconnect-chat files and search the net! I’ll update this document and the related scripts and config files when I feel like it, but they will be available at http://www.iki.fi/mikko.rapeli/linux_gprs.html.

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